Cardiomyopathy is an abnormality of the cardiac muscle that leads to functional changes or impairment. There are three types: Dilated, Hypertrophic, and Restrictive.
Cardiomyopathy is typically caused by prolonged, uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure, or congenital diseases. In each case the heart is having to work extra hard – the ventricles begin to change shape (or remodel) in response to the extra work.
To control HTN and manage symptoms and prevent long-term complications of low cardiac output. The only “cure” is heart transplant.
Cardiomyopathy can mimic heart failure and is often caused by hypertension. It’s important to monitor the patient’s cardiovascular status and vital signs to be alert to any evidence of decompensation.
Because cardiac output is compromised, oxygenation may be compromised as well due to poor perfusion and fluid backing up in the lungs. Assess SpO2 and give supplemental oxygen
Controlling hypertension is important to control symptoms as well as to prevent any further damage to the heart muscle.
Because of the poor cardiac output, patients will be short of breath and easily fatigued. Encourage frequent rest periods and clustered activities.
Minimizing stress can decrease blood pressure and workload on the heart, as well as decrease inflammatory chemicals within the heart muscle (↓ cortisol).
Cardiomyopathy can mimic heart failure. The patient may experience signs of poor perfusion such as weakness, pale, clammy skin, and diaphoresis, as well as shortness of breath and pink frothy sputum due to pulmonary edema.
A low sodium diet should be followed to help decrease hypertension and water retention (volume overload). This involves avoiding processed or canned foods, not adding salt to food, and avoiding sodas.
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