Renal calculi, commonly known as kidney stones, are crystallized minerals, typically calcium or uric acid, in your urine that stick together and form stones. These stones may pass through the urinary tract and be expelled in the urine, or may be large enough to require surgical intervention.
Stones form when urine is concentrated and contains more mineral deposits than fluid. These substances crystallize and stick together forming stones. Dehydration is a major risk factor for developing renal calculi. Other factors include infection, diet and heredity. Most stones will pass through the urinary tract without intervention, however some may require medication or surgery.
Normal voiding of urine without pain. Passing of the kidney stones without traumatic injury.
Assess for and manage pain
The primary symptom of renal stones is excruciating pain. Monitor for location and character of pain to determine if stone is moving. Nausea and vomiting may occur due to intense pain.
Assess for signs/symptoms of infection
Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection such as malodorous urine, fever and chills. Hematuria may be a sign of infection or movement of a renal calculi.
Monitor for dehydration
Nausea and vomiting as well as high levels of pain may prevent the patient from eating or drinking.
Encourage intake of fluids
Encourage oral fluids and initiate IV fluids if necessary. Optimal hydration may help the movement of the stone and prevent further complications..
Monitor urine output for evidence of stones
Provide urinary basin (hat) for toilet to measure urinary output. Inspect urine and any blood clots for possible stones.
Monitor diagnostic tests
Prepare patient for and assist with procedures for removing or managing renal stones
Depending on the size and location of the stone, surgical intervention may be necessary.
Provide nutrition education depending on type of calculi:
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