Hyponatremia- Definition, Signs and Symptoms Nursing Mnemonic



  • S-Stupor/coma
  • A-Anorexia, N&V
  • L-Lethargy
  • T-Tendon reflexes decreased
  • L-Limp muscles (weakness)
  • O-Orthostatic hypotension
  • S-Seizures/headache
  • S-Stomach cramping


Hyponatremia is decreased levels of sodium in the blood. It can be caused by inadequate sodium or excess free water which leads to lower concentration of sodium. Sodium and potassium work together to allow depolarization of muscles. Low sodium levels can limit this ability and cause muscle weakness. Sodium in the blood helps maintain the oncotic pressure. If fluid leaves the blood vessels, it can lead to decreased blood pressure.

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