The 6 P’s
- P-Pulmonary Bronchial Constriction
- P-Possible Foreign Body
- P-Pulmonary Embolus (PE)
- P-Pump Failure
These are six major causes for dyspnea. Pulmonary bronchial constriction prevents the passage of air into the lungs which contributes to dyspnea. (Possible) foreign bodies can become trapped or logged within the trachea restricting air flow. Pulmonary embolisms can prevent complete oxygenation of the blood in the alveoli due to restricted blood flow. Pneumothorax collapses the lung and prevents full expansion, restricting oxygenation. Pump failure refers to the heart not beating appropriately. If the heart is not perfusing the lungs than the lungs will be unable to oxygenate the blood. Pneumonia leads to poor lung ventilation as well.
Cornell Note-Taking System Instructions:
- Record: During the lecture, use the note-taking column to record the lecture using telegraphic sentences.
- Questions: As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based onthe notes in the right-hand column. Writing questions helps to clarifymeanings, reveal relationships, establish continuity, and strengthenmemory. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam-studying later.
- Recite: Cover the note-taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the question and cue column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words.
- Reflect: Reflect on the material by asking yourself questions, for example: “What’s the significance of these facts? What principle are they based on? How can I apply them? How do they fit in with what I already know? What’s beyond them?
- Review: Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. If you do, you’ll retain a great deal for current use, as well as, for the exam.
For more information, visit www.nrsng.com/cornell